Oct 19 2013

1920’s Lighting Fixture Research

By Max

HistoricCatalogsofSearsRoebuckandCo.1896-1993 (4)

Quick, to the Microfiche!:  I’m working on a live performance project right now that I’m really excited about.  It’s an immersive theater piece set in 1923, so we’ve made the design choice that we’re going to try do everything with period lighting fixtures, or conceal anything that’s incorrect to the time period.   Which, it turns out in practice, is a completely insane thing to try and do.  But anyway.

To get started, I wanted a visual survey of typical lighting fixtures as would be found in 1923, so that when we were designing the interiors we would have a rich palette to draw from.  For visual research, I first did the simplest thing, which was to open a bottle of wine, dim the lights, and search for pictures taken in the 20’s on the Internet.

A 1920's Speakeasy

My research indicates they knew how to have a good time back in the day.

There are some good resources out there, like the enthralling timewaster that is the Library of Congress Flickr collection, but the images I found this way weren’t terribly helpful.  The lion’s share of photographs were taken outdoors, which doesn’t help me.  If they were taken indoors, the ambient lighting would be obscured by the camera flash.  One can gather that typical interior light levels were much lower than they are today, but apart from that I couldn’t tell much.

HistoricCatalogsofSearsRoebuckandCo.1896-1993 (3)

Frontispiece of the 1923 Sears Roebuck Catalog

Next Idea.  So then I thought of the Sears Catalog.  At its heyday in the 20’s, you could buy anything, up to and including an entire house in kit form, from the Sears Catalog– the amazon.com of its day.  And, the San Francisco Public Library has a complete set  on microfiche, dating back to the 1890’s.

I spent a thoroughly enjoyable Saturday at the library going through the collection, starting from about 1910 and going forward through 1930.  At the end of it, I had what I wanted:

1920's Wall Sconces

Adjusto-Lite, The Handiest Lamp Made.

1920's Table Lamps

We ♥ Fringes

1920's Floor Lamps

My Radio Has Made Me $500.

1920's Chandeliers

“All positive statements are verified in our own laboratory.”

1920's Ceiling Surface Lighting Fixtures

Note that the light bulbs were still mouth-blown, which is why they have the tips on the end.

I found that the most stylistically expressed years were actually 1927-29 or so, although the early 20’s have some great details.  Also, there’s a noticeable shift through the decade in the marketing copy (and what great copy it is, too)– the earlier years are all about thrift, but as the Roaring 20’s kick in in earnest, the pitch changes to all the modern electric appliances you can own, in your own home.

If you have any resources to share, leave a comment!  I will try to post more about this monster of a project as we get closer to the opening in January.


Aug 23 2013

In Appreciation: J. Robert Anderson

By Max

J. Robert Anderson, Uncle Bob to me

Regular service will resume shortly: I want to say a few words about my Uncle Bob, who passed away a few weeks ago.  At the funeral, the priest asked us to reflect on what his life meant to us, the gifts he gave us by his presence in our life.  I’ve been turning that question over and over in my mind, trying to process it.

Aunt Carole and Uncle Bob, in Chicago, 1988 or so

Every summer, my parents would send both of us to visit my aunt Carole and uncle Bob for a month or so, while they took off and had an adult-person vacation.  At the time lived in a high-rise condo in Chicago, and we also took their sailboat out on Lake Michigan, and camped in the Chicago Harbor, and watched the fireworks from their windows.

Chicago-marina

View from their boat, in the Chicago Marina

I was really into science, and they indulged me, spending two whole days at the Chicago Museum of Natural History (because we didn’t see everything the first day!), and detailed discussions of dinosaurs or spaceflight or sharks or god knows what else.

Max-and-Marcy-on-boat-1

My sister and I on the boat, Chicago, 1988 or so

In later years, we caught fish from their dock in Akron, OH, and we tried our first lobster when they moved to Long Island, NY.  They retired in Lake Tahoe, NV.  Always, near the water.

Lake Tahoe, NV

But more than the memories of the experiences, I feel like I’m a different person for the time we spent together, and I’ve been struggling to find the words to explain this.  I think that the simple act of being an extended guest with adults that aren’t your parents was formative for me— never mind in such wonderful and exotic locales.  I grew up (until the age of 13) in Minneapolis, MN, which, while being a great place to raise kids, can be a little bit of a monoculture.  Staying with my Aunt Carole and Uncle Bob gave me the idea that there were other ways of being, other rulesets to live by.  That intellectual flexibility, the ability to see the-way-things-are as a somewhat arbitrary construct of expectation, has served me well as an artist.

2009-11-26 14.39.18

The other gift my uncle gave me was to engage me as an intellectual peer.  I didn’t particularly get along with kids my own age, and adults tended to treat me like, well, a kid.  My uncle was a salty old Navy guy, just full of piss and vinegar.  He had a pretty wicked sense of humor, and he didn’t particularly spare me any of his barbs.

I guess I should here mention that he was a Stanford graduate, and rose to #2 at Ford under Lee Iacocca before becoming CFO and vice-chairman at Firestone and CEO and vice-chairman at Grumman Corporation, makers of the Apollo Lunar Module and F-14 fighter jet.

Bob in a jet simulator

Bob in a jet simulator

I’ll miss his wry smile and sharp wit.

2009-11-25 17.06.18


Aug 1 2013

LEED v4 for the Lighting Designer

By Max

Leed Logo

The next version of LEED is coming… Slowly. What was originally slated to be LEED 2012 has been approved by membership and will be rolled out sometime early 2014.  In LEED 2009 there were really only four credits where a lighting designer could contribute to project certification:

  • SS Credit 8: Light Pollution Reduction
  • EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance
  • IEQ Credit 6.1: Controllability of Systems – Lighting
  • IEQ Credit 8.1: Daylight and Views – Daylight

In LEED v4, these credits have been revised, and new credits relevant to lighting design have been established.  Let’s see what’s new, shall we?

 

MLO-LZ2

Light Pollution Reduction (Sustainable Sites Credit 8):

This credit is frankly a mess in LEED 2009, and it seems much improved and clarified in v4.

In LEED 2009, you had to demonstrate that all interior fixtures with line-of-sight to exterior windows had an automatic shutoff to reduce their levels by 50% after curfew, to prevent light pollution.  Which was a lot of documentation for a fairly minimal environmental impact.  In v4, all LEED Projects will be required to demonstrate a minimum level of energy performance over ASHRAE 90.1-2010, which accomplishes essentially the same thing without creating a documentation requirement specific to the credit.

The light trespass requirement is also streamlined.  In LEED 2009, the light trespass criteria included both a horizontal and vertical footcandle maximum, which varied by Lighting Zone, without a lot of specificity in how the criteria should be documented.  In addition, the horizontal footcandle requirement was <.01 fc, which meant that if you had a high-density design with lighting anywhere near the LEED boundary, this credit was nearly impossible to attain– even if your exterior lighting very sensible and dark-sky friendly.  In LEED v4, there is only a vertical footcandle requirement, with clear guidance on how the calcgrids should be built, OR you can comply by using fixtures with an appropriate BUG rating.

A similar alternate compliance method to the uplight requirement is provided– you can specify fixtures with an appropriate BUG rating for the Lighting Zone and distance to the LEED boundary, and forgo summing uplight/downlight lumens for every fixture on the site.

What these two changes mean together is that you can identify a maximum BUG rating for your project, specify fixtures with that BUG rating or less, and you’re done.  Also, and I can’t emphasize how welcome this change is– facade and landscape lighting are exempt from trespass and uplight requirements, as long as you turn them off between midnight and 6am.    Facade and landscape lighting has a role to play in creating facilities that serve the needs of occupants, and if you’re designing to meet the exterior lighting load requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2010 and furthermore turning the lighting  off after hours the environmental impact of these load types are minimal.

Link to the full credit language is here.

 

ashrae-logo

Optimize Energy Performance (Energy and Atmosphere Credit 2):

The credit language is now based on ASHRAE 90.1-2010, which seems to be the biggest change.  As before, there’s a whole-building energy modeling compliance path, or a prescriptive path.  The design guides used as the basis of the prescriptive path has been similarly updated.  I haven’t yet dug into exactly what’s different with ASHRAE 90.1-2007 to 2010, if you have insights be sure to leave a comment.

Link to the full credit language is here.

 

An Electrical Submeter

Advanced Energy Metering (Energy and Atmosphere Credit 3):

This is a new credit that would require placing a submeter on loads that exceed 10% of the total energy usage, which would certainly be the lighting panel, and possibly individual loads within that panel.  Submeters are available at around $300/zone, so it’s a very easy and inexpensive way to pick up a credit.  Some lighting control systems have load metering capability built-in, so you could get it for nearly free.  I think the intent here is to make it a credit that nearly every LEED project pursues, thereby creating a market for this sort of product, and an expectation on the part of owners that they’ll be able to monitor the energy performance of their buildings on a granular and ongoing basis.

Link to the full credit language is here.

 

Demand Response

Demand Response (Energy and Atmosphere Credit 4):

Demand Response (DR) works like this: utilities are continually scaling up and down the amount of power generation in the system, and during periods of peak use or rapid changes in system energy usage, they have to run their dirtiest plants.  DR is a way of managing those peak and transient loads, whereby the utility sends an electronic request to the energy consumers, who automatically turn off some loads.  For example, a facility might increase the HVAC setpoint by a few degrees, or wait to run the compressor on their refrigeration equipment, or sweep lighting in spaces that are unoccupied to off.  In return, the utility offers the consumer rebates or reduced rates.

If your project is in California this credit is a freebie, since Title 24 will require DR capability in all new projects beginning in 2014.  As utilities move towards demand-pricing of energy, this capability can potentially be a real money saver.  Some lighting controls systems have the ability to do Demand Response built-in.

Again, it seems like the intent here is to create a market, since this credit would be fairly easy and inexpensive to attain.

Link to the full credit language is here.

 

West Berkeley Library, Pseudocolor rendering

Interior Lighting (Indoor Environmental Quality Credit 6):

This credit incorporates the former Controllability of Systems – Lighting credit (IEQ 6.1), with the further requirement spaces have bi-level switching.  In California, the next version of Title 24 requires continuous dimming in most spaces, so this is a freebie for projects located in the golden state.

As before, that’s worth one credit, but what’s this? A completely new point, for ‘Lighting Quality’.  I’m just going to block quote this one:

Option 2. Lighting quality (1 point)

Choose four of the following strategies.

    1. For all regularly occupied spaces, use light fixtures with a luminance of less than 2,500cd/m2 between 45 and 90 degrees from nadir.
      Exceptions include wallwash fixtures properly aimed at walls, as specified by manufacturer’s data, indirect uplighting fixtures, provided there is no view down into these uplights from a regularly occupied space above, and any other specific applications (i.e. adjustable fixtures).
    2. For the entire project, use light sources with a CRI of 80 or higher. Exceptions include lamps or fixtures specifically designed to provide colored lighting for effect, site lighting, or other special use.
    3. For 75% of the total connected lighting load, use light sources that have a rated life (or L70 for LED sources) of at least 24,000 hours (at 3-hour per start, if applicable).
    4. Use direct-only overhead lighting for 25% or less of the total connected lighting load for all regularly occupied spaces.
    5. For 90% of the regularly occupied floor area, meet the following thresholds for area-weighted average surface reflectance: 85% for ceilings, 60% for walls, and 25% for floors.
    6. If furniture is included in the scope of work, select furniture finishes to meet the following thresholds for area-weighted average surface reflectance: 45% for work surfaces, and 50% for movable partitions.
    7. For 75% of the regularly occupied floor area, meet an average ratio of wall surface illuminance (excluding fenestration) to average work plane (or surface, if defined) illuminance that does not exceed 1:10. Must also meet strategy (5), strategy (6), or demonstrate area-weighted surface reflectance of 60% for walls.
    8. For 75% of the regularly occupied floor area, meet an average ratio of ceiling illuminance (excluding fenestration) to work surface illuminance that does not exceed 1:10. Must also meet option (5), option (6), or demonstrate area-weighted surface reflectance of 85% for ceilings.

Well.  I’m sure some in our industry will bristle at being told what constitutes quality in lighting, but most of these are best practices, criteria that we would design to meet in any case.  Some of them are pretty subjective (some of our clients very much prefer darker finishes and direct lighting), but that’s why you can pick any four, I suppose.  I generally take the view that any attempt to promote quality in lighting design is welcome, as long as there’s some flexibility in implementation.

Link to the full credit language is here.

 

Daylighting Room

Daylight (Indoor Environmental Quality Credit 7)

Here’s another one where the language of the credit has received a much-needed overhaul— the process of documenting the credit is now much clearer.  But the biggest change is that the Prescriptive option based on ratio of window space to floor space has been eliminated in favor of a new performance metric based Solar Daylight Autonomy (SDA).  The new criteria is SDA(300/50%), which means that calculation points in regularly occupied areas have 300 lux or more 50% of the time.  In addition, you must demonstrate that no more than 10% of calculation points have an Annual Solar Exposure of ASE(1000,250), meaning that no more than 10% of spaces have more than 1000 lux more than 250 hours per year.

The available points from this credit have been increased, 55% SDA(300/50%) will get you two points, 75% will get you three points, reflecting the rather large potential impact on the floorplate and glazing system that would be necessary to obtain this credit.   Alternatively, you can use the same metric found in LEED 2009, demonstrating that at 9am and 3pm on the equinox, most of your floor area will be between 300 lux and 3000 lux.  Interesting, that compliance method only nets you a maximum of two points.

As in prior versions, there’s also a compliance path via direct measurement of the built environment, but I wouldn’t expect projects to pursue this strategy except as a Hail Mary.

If you need a quick refresher on daylighting metrics like SDA and ASE, my blog post on the subject of daylighting metrics is here.

Link to the full credit language is here.

Final thoughts:  In general, I have to say that I’m well pleased with the changes.  Where in the past high-performing projects could nevertheless fail to comply with the specifics of a credit, multiple paths to compliance have been provided, and they’re based on industry standards, rather than some standard  particular to LEED.   The credits have been rewritten with a lot of care taken to make the language clear and specific.  If I’m understanding it right, the overall point totals that make a project LEED Certified, Silver, Gold, or Platinum are not changing, so perhaps the biggest change is that project teams will have a wider choice in certification strategies.

Hope this post came in useful, chime in in the comments if you have anything to add!


Jun 30 2013

Backpacking Lassen Volcanic National Park

By Max
Bush-Lupine

Bush lupine

Lassen is a gem.  The Southwest part of the park was still mostly under snow when I was there in the second week of June, but Hwy 89, which runs over Lassen Pass at 8500ft, had just opened for the summer a week or two before.  I did a 27 mile loop around the Eastern side of the park.  Days were in the mid-70s, nights were down to freezing.

20130522-P1030144

Pictures from four days of waterfalls, mountain lakes, and volcanic formations follow!

Continue reading “Backpacking Lassen Volcanic National Park” »


Jun 16 2013

Kitchen Lighting!

By Max

Final-Medium

Le Corbusier had to start somewhere, I suppose:  Here’s a fun little side project I recently completed.  My parents are sprucing up their house in preparation to sell it, and as part of that effort the currently installed kitchen lighting Had To Go.

The existing Monstrosity as it was referred to in the family was the the same fixture that came with the house when we moved into it in 1994: a 6′ x 8′ box built out of drywall, with three fluorescent striplights inside (T12, natch).  The diffusers consisted of three sheets of A12 prismatic arcylic.   Behold:

IMG_0733

An interesting artifact of the market distortions caused by very inexpensive labor.

Anyway, my parents decided that they had lived under its all-seeing tyranny long enough, but wanted to keep the scope of the project to a minimum since they’re trying to sell the house.  At the same time, the kitchen is the first thing when you enter from the garage, so they wanted to create an architectural feature.  After working through a few design iterations, we arrived at the following (rendered via AGI32):

Pierson-Kitchen-Rendering-Final

All of the fixtures are MR-16 downlights from Contrast Lighting.  The six in the center pattern have a dropped frosted glass cylinder trims:

regressed downlight from Scan rev 2

While the downlights around the perimeter have a complementary regressed frosted glass housing:regressed downlight from Scan rev 1

Sectional view:regressed downlight from Scan rev 4

 

We’re all pretty happy with the way it came out, Contrast really delivers an exceptional quality of product, especially at the reasonable price, and the contractors did a nice job finishing it out:IMG_0974-rev1